Psychology and Education : Psychology

1st paragraph (1/2 page): Post an explanation of practical and ethical consider

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1st paragraph (1/2 page):
Post an explanation of practical and ethical considerations related to using reversal design with the target behavior in the example. Provide an additional example of a target behavior for which using a reversal design would be ethically inappropriate.
2nd paragraph (1/2 page):
Post a description of a single problem behavior you select that could be maintained by each of the following. Provide an example of each.
a.    Social positive reinforcement
b.    Social negative reinforcement
c.    Automatic reinforcement
reading for paragraph 1:
Single-subject research is a cornerstone of ABA. It provides the means for a behavior analyst to measure the change in behavior for a single client when an intervention is introduced. But how do you know if your intervention is working? You might ask the client or his/her parents or teacher, but that may not be an accurate reflection of actual behavior change.
In order to have reliable evidence of behavior change, you must use some form of repeated, systematic measurement of the target behavior before, during, and after the intervention. That way, you can best assess the impact of the intervention on the target behavior. These systematic measurements are called single-subject design, and they follow a few simple and basic rules. The first and most important is repeated measurement using a consistent observation technique. And you must do this across baseline and intervention phases, at a minimum.
One particular type of single-subject design is reversal design. Reversal design adds a phase after the baseline and intervention phases. This additional phase removes the variable responsible for the intervention, continuously measuring the subject to see whether behavior reverts in the direction of baseline levels.

This 1/2 page paragraph discussion focuses on reversal designs. You will analyze the strengths and weaknesses of reversal designs, and you will examine practical and ethical considerations of this single-subject design method.
Consider the following example for your post:
Reversal designs (e.g., A-B-A-B designs) require the removal of an intervention to help you determine if the intervention is working. Using the graphic prototype of an A-B-A-B design , assume the target behavior is making eye contact and the intervention is contingent praise (e.g., “Nice job looking me in the eye.”).
Based on the example, consider why you might remove an intervention that is working. Next, consider ethical issues with removing treatment from a client to examine the efficacy of the intervention.
Reading for 2nd paragraph:
Behaviors do not occur in isolation. If they occur on a regular basis, they are serving some purpose or function. Think about behaviors in which you engage on a regular basis. Why do you keep doing them? Your readings illustrate that there are only three functions of a behavior: (1) positive reinforcement—you get something you like (i.e., attention or something tangible), (2) negative reinforcement—you escape or avoid something you do not like, and (3) self-stimulation (i.e., automatic reinforcement).

For this 1/2 page Discussion, you will develop an understanding of a critical element in functional analysis and assessment—reinforcement. You will identify and describe a behavior in your life and explain the type of reinforcement that maintains it (i.e., positive, negative, or automatic).
Focus on how your understanding of the functions of behavior (i.e., ABC analysis) guide you in developing efficacious interventions.
Consider behaviors in your own life that may be maintained by social positive reinforcement, social negative reinforcement, and automatic reinforcement. Then, select a single problem behavior that could be maintained by any one of the following:
Social positive reinforcement
Social negative reinforcement
Automatic reinforcement

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